OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at identifying the effects of working memory training in cognition as a whole, and relate them to optimize the balance in elderly people.
MeTHODS: The training was done thought Simon Task and Digit Span during 12 sessions. Thirteen elderly people underwent cognitive (Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), clock test and verbal fluency) and balance evaluations (Berg balance scale and Dynamic gait index) before and after training to comparison. They were divided in two groups, according to the score of MMSE - elderly people without cognitive impairment and elderly people with cognitive impairment.
RESULT: In the group of elderly people without cognitive impairment, we observed a statistically significant increasing in Mini-mental State score, verbal fluency test and dynamic gait index. In the group of elderly people with cognitive impairment, only the Mini-mental State Examination showed a statistically significant improvement.
CONCLUSION: The working memory training optimize the performance of other cognitive components, especially attention and calculation, and of the own working memory in both groups. The working memory training was able to optimize the dynamic balance in groups of elderly without disorder.
Keywords: Aged, Memory disorders, Memory; Short-term memory.
OBJECTIVE: To identify and to analyze the records of an Elderly Division in order to check the occurrence of unfounded accusations and the reason for these.
METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive, documentary study with a quantitative and qualitative approach. The data collection was done through the records of the Policy Assistance to the Elderly People and Disabled People Division, in São Carlos city, São Paulo state, since its implementation, in February 2003, until December 2010.
RESULTS: 1.301 records of complaints, with 169 (13%) of them were evaluated unfounded. The victims were women in 102 (60%) cases. The highest frequency was elderly between 71 and 80 years (49; 29%), predominated and widowhood (77, 45%) and married (35; 21%). Regarding the type of complaint, we observe negligence in 61 cases (36%) withdrawal in 48 (28%). Only 21% (36) included the identification of subjects. Of the 36 (21%) records identifying the subject was found that professional services and health care and protection of the elderly were highlighted, including: surveillance, prosecution, police woman, and emergency and municipal police.
CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of unfounded complaints was significant and it was observed that there is a relationship with the complainant (professional services and health and social welfare services of the elderly), which can be explained by the lack of professional qualification on the subject, and the limitation of an interaction between sectors, the Division and other care services to the elderly. Improvements in systematizing the records should be made in this Division since large number of records was identified incomplete and insufficient information to investigate the complaint.
Keywords: Aging; Violence; Health of the elderly; Social services; Social organization.
OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the coughing intensity, and its association with respiratory muscle strength, motor signs and symptoms in patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD).
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that included 107 patients with PD (65.43±9.47 years old) and 107 elderly people without PD (65.32±9.34 years old). It was measured the peak cough flow (PCF), the maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) and the motor symptoms of the PD (The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale - UPDRS).
RESULTS: The PD group showed decreasing of the PCF l/s (425.14±160.78 versus 481.74±148.28, p<0.01), MIP cmH2O (71.16±43.45 versus 89.72±33.03, p<0.01) and MEP cmH2O (80.60±33.52 versus 107.88±41.25, p<0.01), in comparison to the group control. There was a correlation between PCF and MIP (r=0.45, p<0.01), PCF and MEP (r=0.57, p<0.01) and PCF and UPDRS (r=0.21, p=0.03).
CONCLUSION: We showed correlations of peak cough flow with respiratory muscle strength and motor symptoms and signs in elderly patients with DP.
Keywords: Cough; Parkinson disease; Respiratory function tests; Aged.
OBJECTIVES: To study the relationship of orthostatic hypotension in outpatients and institutionalized ones.
METHODS: Cross-sectional study of elderly aged 65 or older, who were attended in a geriatric ambulatory and residents in long-stay institutions (ILPI).
RESULTS: They were evaluated 135 individuals, 38 of ILPI with 78±9 years of age (50% men) and 97 geriatric outpatient clinic with 78±7 years (78.4% women). The frequency of hypertension was 55.3% in ILPI and 78.4% in the community (p=0.01). Orthostatic hypotension was observed in 7.9% in ILPI and 3.1% in elderly in the community. The drugs associated with orthostatic hypotension were: antidepressants - odds ratio (OR=10.18 (95%CI 1.30-79.52), p=0.02 - and anticonvulsants - OR=251 (95%CI 1.55-67.44), p=0.01, 01. The presence of falls in the last six months was 26.3% in the ILPI and 27.8% of outpatients. No association between falls and orthostatic hypotension, OR=1.34 (95%CI 0.23-7.66).
CONCLUSION: The orthostatic hypotension was more frequent in elderly in institutions; it was associated with antidepressants and anticonvulsants, and was not associated with falls in this population.
Keywords: Hypotension orthostatic; Aged; Health of the elderly.
OBJECTIVE: To identify the barriers to the practice of regular physical activity in elderly people registered in Family Health Units in the city of Vitoria de Santo Antão, Pernambuco, Brazil.
METHODS: The sample consisted of 88 elderly enrolled in eight FHU. Data collection was conducted through questionnaires to obtain general characteristics, comorbidities, risk factors, health perception and barriers to the practice of regular physical activity. For data analysis we used the descriptive analysis and the chi-square test was adopted with p<0.05.
RESULTS: The mean age of the elderly was 68.8±6.01 years and more than half of the sample was composed of women (86.4%). Of the elderly registered in the Family Health Units, 62.5% do not perform regular physical activity and the most perceived barriers were: "I have a disease" and "without free time". The inactive behavior of the elderly was associated with four barriers: "inadequate facilities", "fear of falling", "I need to relax" and "got lazy".
CONCLUSION: The majority of the elderly population (62.5%) that were assessed in the Family Health Units do not perform physical activity regularly and perceives the presence of disease and not having available free time as the main barriers.
Keywords: Motor activity; Aged; Primary health care.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the level of physical activity and aerobic power with the subjective perception of memory loss in postmenopausal non-sedentary women.
METHODS: The study included 131 women who engaged in physical activity twice a week. To evaluate the memory instruments the Memory Assessment Clinics Self-Ralph (MAC-Q) Questionnaire and the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) were used. The level of physical activity was identified by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and with the use of pedometers. The indicator of aerobic power was obtained by the 2-Minute Walking Test. To check the normality of the data we used the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and performed the Spearman correlation (rho). We used the Kruskal-Wallis test to compare physical activity levels between groups. The level of significance was p<0.05.
RESULTS: The results show a better correlation of the subjective perception of memory loss with moderate and vigorous physical activities, but the correlations are weak and low.
CONCLUSION: There was no significant association between total duration of walking per week, moderate and vigorous physical activity and subjective awareness of memory loss in postmenopausal women.
Keywords: Aging; Memory; Physical conditioning, human; Physical fitness.
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to understand the meaning and feelings that involve the learning process, the link with the computer and the association among the words technology, computer and computing technology for some participants of a group of seniors.
METHODS: It was a quantitative and qualitative research with 20 subjects aged 50 years old and over. Quantitative data were described using descriptive statistics. The ones of quality type were analyzed by content analysis method.
RESULTS: It was found that the learning process, mediated by computer, provided positive changes in the lives of these individuals, fostering learning, interaction, forming circle of friendships and increased self-esteem. Moreover, it revealed that the association of the words technology, computer and computing technology represents a major breakthrough and ease the lives of people.
CONCLUSION: The interaction with the computer is promoted by digital inclusion, by the conquest of a digital social space, new friendships and appreciation of the elderly as a person.
Keywords: Aging; Technology; Learning; Informatics.
INTRODUCTION: The B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a marker of heart failure (HF), which represents a serious public health problem. This marker is useful in the diagnosis, in estimating the prognosis and therapeutic guidance of HF.
OBJECTIVE: To review the scientific publications that establish the relationship between the pharmacological treatment of HF and the BNP.
METHODOLOGY: This is a bibliographical research of scientific articles published in the period from 2009 to 2013, available in Portuguese and English.
RESULTS: 100 articles were analyzed, 15 of which, with pertinent thematic, were used in this review.
CONCLUSION: The conduct intended to reduce plasma concentrations of BNP for concentrations within ranges of reference reduces cardiovascular events. When comparing the use of Losartan associated with hydrochlorothiazide with Anlodipina in high doses have similar efficacy in reducing levels of BNP, the beta blockers cause fall in weeks to months, being the most effective.
Keywords: Heart failure; Therapeutics; Natriuretic peptides.
With the longevity increasing, it is noticed in recent years, a growing concern with cerebrovascular diseases such as strokes, disease that affects the elderly more often, which represents a big onus in socioeconomic terms due to the high incidence and prevalence of frames with physical disabilities. The present study describes the experience over the "mirror visual feedback" (MVF) method as a therapeutic occupational resource in a rehabilitation of an elderly patient with a functional impairment of the superior member, in chronicle phase, after an encephalic vascular accident, in a rehab, from January to February of 2013. It can be observed a significant improvement in motor function and the execution of daily activities, developing a good functional usage of the hand. This experience report, suggests that rehabilitation through MVF method is an effective and adjuvant method in the occupational therapeutic.
Keywords: Stroke; Hemiplegic; Occupational therapeutic.