OBJECTIVE: Characterizing elderly people characterizing elderly people by anthropometric measures and providing reference values according to the sex and the age group.
METHODS: We evaluated 359 elderly people of both sexes from the Northeast of Brazil. The anthropometric variables studied were: weight, height, body mass index, arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness and arm muscle circumference. Data are shown as mean values ± standard deviations, and percentiles (10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th and 90th). We used the Student's t test to analyze the means differences between both sexes and the analysis of variances (ANOVA) to evaluate the effect of age on the anthropometric data.
RESULTS: The average values of the variables were higher for males, except BMI, AC, and TST . The average differences of the BMI and AC between both sexes were not statistically significant. The elderlies age showed to be an important factor in the reduction of some variables, what ratify the necessity of specifics standard references for the elderly people
CONCLUSION: The decreasing trend of anthropometric data of this study is similar to others conducted with an elderly in the elderly population. Thus, these values can help the nutritional assessment and contribute to the development of an anthropometric reference standard for the elderly people in Brazil.
Keywords: Anthropometry, aged, Brazil.
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the impact of the influenza vaccine implement in elderlies related to the number of deaths and hospitalizations for pneumonia in Aracaju, with sixty years of age or older, between 1998 and 2010.
METHODOLOGY: Data were collected from the National Health System Database (DATASUS), the Hospital Information System - SIH (BRASIL, 2012) and the Evaluation System Immunization Program - API (BRASIL, 2012), from 1998 to 2010, related to immunization and hospitalization of elderly people in Aracaju (SE). The hospitalization rate for pneumonia per 10000 inhabitants and mortality rate for pneumonia per 10 000 inhabitants was calculated.
RESULTS: 2229 hospitalizations for pneumonia were reported to SIH/SUS between 1998 and 2010 elderlies. The number of pneumonia deaths in the same period and population's age was 575. The average mortality rate was 10,37 (per 10000 inhabitants), this indicator oscillated during the series of study, but during most of time was decreasing. There was a 47% decrease in hospitalization rates during the period observed. The number of elderly people increased every year of the series and the highest rates of hospitalization and mortality due to pneumonia occurred in patients aged 80 years and over.
CONCLUSION: The rates of hospitalization due to pneumonia in the elderly people decreased during the years following the implementation of influenza vaccine. Although pneumonia is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in elderlies, the prevention of flu episodes results in an improvement of this people's health.
Keywords: Influenza vaccines. Pneumonia. Aged. Mortality. Hospitalization.
Considering the aging aspects: physiological changes, chronological, social behavior, healthy support, beyond of "Heath Eldery Policies", to give prominence to "Heath Family Strategy" created in 1994, we aimed to describe the experiences in the Health Family Units of Rubião Jrè district and Jd. Iolanda's neighborhood, Botucatu city, and analyze datas which express aspects of taking care of the elderly assisted. For this, it was done an investigation and protocol analyzes of described and amounted statistics data coming from them we create some graphics of elderly who lives at the studied catchment areas. There was a significant number of elderly in unities who showed similar proportion of man and woman and the total number of elderly, involved the attended area is bigger at Jd. Iolanda's neighborhood. The data shows that despite elderly take significant part of treatments, there isn't available form specific. To conclude, it is necessary a revaluation of values of health professionals and promoters to count on with better options to elderly take care.
Keywords: Family Health, Health Policy, Aged.
OBJECTIVES: Evaluating the association between anthropometric indicators of general and abdominal obesity, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in an elderly group from the Federal University of Maranhão, and investigating the correlation between these indicators.
METHODS: There was a cross-sectional study with 50 older servers on pre-retirement. The participants answered a questionnaire about sociodemographic data and history of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). The general obesity was identified based on body mass index (BMI) and the abdominal obesity by anthropometric indicators by waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height (WHtR) and conicity index (CI).In order to investigate the association between obesity, the generalized and abdominal , and the reporting of NCDs, the chi-square test was used. The correlation between BMI and indicators of abdominal obesity was evaluated by Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient or by.
RESULTS: General fat was shown in 56% of the group, and the abdominal fat was even more prevalent, according to the indicators: WC (76%), WHtR (86%) and Ci (86%) The history of NCDs was reported by 52% of the servers, but there was no association with obesity. Only CC and RCE indicators proved to be correlated with BMI (p> 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of obesity, especially the one located in the abdominal region, put the group at risk of developing or aggravating NCDs, therefore, this should be a target to the actions of healthy eating habits and lifestyle promotion.
Keywords: Aged, abdominal obesity, anthropometry.
OBJECTIVES: Matching bone mineral density in elderly patients with osteoporosis nutritional risk factors.
METHODS: In over-sixty-year-old patients of both sexes, the mineral density was verified through a Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis. Economic and demographic data were collected on a structured questionnaire. The identification of nutritional risk factors was verified through a Food Frequency Questionnaire and a Mini Nutritional Assessment. The level of significance adopted in this study was 5%.
RESULTS: The sample consisted of 71 elderly patients, in which 10 were men (14.1%) and 61 were women (85.9%). The mean age was 68.77 ± 6.73 years. In an adjusted multiple linear regression model, the gender (p = 0.009), the sodium intake (p = 0.011) and the vitamin B12 (p = 0.003) were the variables that showed a higher correlation with bone mineral density. Risk of malnutrition (p = 0.021), as well as the family history of osteoporosis (p = 0.020) are also factors that negatively interfered in bone mineral density. The variables: smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol use, protein intake, fiber, caffeine, vitamin C and potassium showed no significant impact on changes in bone mineral density in the study's sample.
CONCLUSIONS: High sodium intake and low intake of vitamin B are the major nutritional risk factors for osteoporosis that affect the bone mineral density in elderly. Family history, female gender and nutritional status (risk of malnutrition) also contributed to the reduction of bone mass.
Keywords: Osteoporosis, bone density, risk factors, elderly, nutrition surveys.
OBJECTIVES: Characterization of elderly patients hospitalized with hip fractures in an university hospital and verification of the impact of interventions applied in the final clinical outcome.
METHODS: The medical records elderlies aged 65 or older, admitted to Hospital Universitário Risoleta Tolentino Neves (HURTN) diagnosed with hip fractures in the period from 01/01/2009 to 02/28/2011 were taken. Data of socio-demographic and health conditions were collect for the characterization of the sample. It was taken into consideration the type of fracture, medical treatment received, the time of admission and surgery, and between the surgery and the hospital discharge, checking delays in the procedure and their reasons; and finally the monitoring received from others professional of a health care team.
RESULTS: during this period we evaluated 231 elderlies with a mean age of 80.82 years were admitted with a diagnosis of hip fracture. The average number of days between admission and surgery was 8.73 days and 40% of the sample's surgery were brought forward. Among these ones, 60% died in hospital against 40% of those who were not delayed. The presence of delay configured highest number of days between surgery and discharge. In regression analysis were predictive of a higher number of days between surgery and discharge, age and days between admission and surgery. Only 48.4% of the sample received physiotherapy treatment during hospitalization.
CONCLUSIONS: There was high in-hospital mortality of elderly patients with proximal femur fracture was associated with age of the patient and the surgical risk. Delay in surgery set up a longer hospitalization.
Keywords: hip fracture, elderly, older, clinical interventions
The postural instability is related to the occurrence of falls, disability and frailty in elderly.
OBJECTIVE: the assessment of the balance and fear of falling in elderly community.
METHODS: 58 community elderlies participated of this descriptive study in the city of Londrina/PR, mean age 73.3 SD = 7.52 years, 43 (74.1%) women and 15 (25.9%) men. The sample included only older people who showed no cognitive impairment, data collection was performed by interviews using the followings instruments: Mini Mental State Examination for assessment of the cognitive conditions, Assessment of Mobility Performance to evaluate the static and dynamic range, Effectiveness of Falls to verify the fear of falling and a questionnaire covering socio-demographic aspects and health conditions.
RESULTS: The subjects had good performance in the assessment of balance and gait with a median of 52 points of the total score, median of 35 for the domain balance and 17 points for gait. The research about fearing of falling showed that 54 (93.1%) of the respondents had concerns about falling. There was a significant association to the different degrees of concern about falling and occurrence of falls.
CONCLUSION: This study identified good balance in the elders studied, but despite the good performance in the assessment of static and dynamic balance the sample showed high fear of falling and high rate of falls.
Keywords: Health Services for the Aged, Postural Balance, Accidental Falls.
OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the functional performance during the accomplishment of Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, first in an isolated way, then associated with motor dual task, and after associated with cognitive dual task in order to compare elderlies with fall history, no fall history and those ones with "cadentis tremble".
METHODS: Elderly women from the community, with no distinction of race and social class participated of this study. The ones with cognitive alterations (Meem), dependent march, visual alterations, not compensated hearing, acute muscle-skeletal pain, use of medications that interfere on the balance were excluded. All of them accomplished the TUG, TUG associated with carrying a complete glass of water (motor task), TUG associated with saying animal names (cognitive task). The comparison between groups was made through ANOVA (α = 5%).
RESULTS: Thirty-six community elderlies (70.17 ± 6.25 years) participated of this study: six of them were classified as fallers, twenty as non fallers and ten with presence of "cadenti tremble" presence. When compared the three groups, in the three different moments of the test, there was not any statistic difference (p> 0.05). In the intra-group comparison, during the three moments of the test, it was observed a statistic difference on the fallers group, being this difference between the simple TUG and the cognitive TUG (p = 0.01). Other analysis were not significant enough.
CONCLUSION: Faller elders, non fallers and the ones with the "cadenti tremble" presence were not different in relation to functional performance. Faller elderlies showed a worse performance on the cognitive TUG when compared to the simple TUG, suggesting the necessity of a specific training.
Keywords: Frail elderly, postural balance, women.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the lower limbs physical performance, respiratory muscle strength, and the functional capacity in healthy elderly in the community.
METHODOLOGY: A total of 24 elderly, with an average age of 66.17 ± 4.22 years, were evaluated. A manual grip test was used to evaluate the muscle strength of the superior limbs (SL), and a Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) test was used to evaluate the performance of the lower limbs (LL). Maximum respiratory pressure was tested using a manometer; while functional capacity was evaluated using the Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT).
RESULTS: The BMI was 26.51 ± 5.2 kg/m2, the manual grip strength was 23.15 ± 5.57 Kgf, the mean total score of SPPB was 10.58 ± 1.67 points, the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) was 57.29 ± 18.47 cmH2O, and the maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) was 74.58 ± 19.11 cmH2O. The distance covered during the 6MWt was 487.88 ± 88m. There were correlations between the distance covered during the 6MWT, the SPPB (r = 0.43; p < 0.05) and the MIP (r = 0.43; p < 0.05) and also between the SPPB and the MEP (r = 0.51; p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: There was an association between functional capacity, lower limbs physical performance, and respiratory strength in elderly people, suggesting that these muscles should be included in rehabilitation programs for elderly people in order to improve functional capacity.
Keywords: Respiratory muscles, muscle strength, elderly, women.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of three different types of strength training in the variables: maximum dynamic force; muscle onset; time and functional reaction performance in 41 elderly women during 12 weeks.
METHODS: The sample (65.4 ± 5.8 years) was divided randomly in three groups: Traditional Strength Training (TFT) (n = 14), Training Power (TP) (n = 14) and Reactive Power Training (TR) (n = 13).
RESULTS: The results showed an improvement in 1RM of knee extension (p <0.01) from the previous to the post 12-week trainee program showing no difference between groups of strength training. At the end of 6 weeks the onset RF muscle was significantly decreased in the groups TR and TP, the VL and reaction time (RT) was significantly lower in TR and this last group showed a better performance during the sit-ups in 30s than the groups TFT and TP (p <0.05).
CONCLUSION: The reactive strength training showed itself to be more effective to the improvement of the muscles responses as the reaction time and onset muscular in elderly women; therefore it showed better results in the functional test sitting-standing during 30s than in the traditional and in the power training group.
Keywords: Muscle strength, aged, ativities of daily living, women.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of different physical exercise protocols on body composition and body density in individuals over years-old in São Carlos (SP), Brazil.
METHODS: The study consisted of 81 volunteers (51 women and 30 men), who were equally divided into three groups: multicomponent training group, resistance training group and control group, which was not submitted to any intervention. The protocols lasted six months. Fat percentage, waist circumference and body mass index were collected before the intervention period and after six months. Statistical analysis was conducted using software MINITAB.
RESULTS: The Anova single factor showed no significant difference between the groups in any variable, however the test power was low. Using paired t-test to determine differences between the first and the second assessments within each group, we found a significant decrease of body mass index in women from multicomponent group and waist circumference in women from the resistance group. A two sample t-test demonstrated only significant difference between genders at the same group in fat percentage, with high values in women for all groups.
CONCLUSION: The present study showed long term effects of multicomponent and resistance protocols. Both protocols were able to maintain body composition and body density in six months in senescent individuals; however an additional nutritional intervention and the use of more sophisticated assessments could enhance the benefits.
Keywords: Aged, Abdominal circumference, body composition, motor activity.
The objective of this study was to verify the potentially inappropriate medicines taken by elderly people during sintomatic cold and flu. The identification of medicines was performed by the Dictionary of Pharmaceutical Specialties (DPS) 2011/2012 and after were identified according to Beers criteria, updated in 2003 and supplemented in 2008. 320 medicines were identified, considering replications, 77 different substances were identified, 9 (11,69%) are considered potentially inappropriate for elderly people and are in 65 (20,31%) of pharmaceutical alternatives available for treatment of influenza and cold. The use of inappropriate medicines make elderly people more susceptible to the drug-related problems, especially the occurrence of adverse reactions. These conditions are even worse in the treatment in treatment of influenza and cold, the medicines used are easily accessible because they don't need prescription and often are used as self medication. It is essential that all health professionals, especially prescriber and pharmacist find alternatives to reduce the inappropriate use of medicines and self medication, contributing for rational drug use and finding ways to improve elderly people quality of life.
Keywords: elderly people health, Drug Utilization, Influenza, Self Medication.
Human life expectation increases significantly over the years, such that people aged over sixty are growing in population proportion. This study aimed to investigate the benefits of physical fitness that the practice of Pilates provides to elderly. The research was conducted through the databases: Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline and Scielo, using the keywords "Pilates", "elderly" and "aging". We selected studies talking about aging, and those related to the effects of Pilates in this population. We considered only the observational and the experimental studies to analyze the effects of Pilates in the elderly. From the eight selected articles, it was observed that the Pilates Method has provided significant improvements in levels of flexibility, muscular strength, balance, personal autonomy and quality of life in older people. The Pilates Method is an exercise program favorable to minimize or reverse the negative effects of aging and improve the necessary levels of physical fitness for elderlies.
Keywords: Physical fitness, exercise movement techniques, aged.
The increase of life expectancy has led several concerns about people's quality of life, especially in the health area. In this context, there is an increase in the incidence of chronic degenerative diseases, as such as osteoporosis. This research aims to conduct a theoretical study about the pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies available for the preventation and treatment of this disease. This study becomes important as it intends to show the main pharmacological and non-pharmacological drugs used in the treatment and mainly in the prevention of this disease, so prevalent nowadays. The methodology used for this study was a literature review and it aimed to compile the main available information about the theme of the study. Osteoporosis is a bone metabolic disease, characterized by a decrease in bone mass and deterioration of the microarchitecture of bone tissue, resulting in a raise of fracture susceptibility, and it is mainly related to age, affecting men and women. The therapeutic agents used in the treatment of osteoporosis can be divided into two classes: compounds with an anti-reabsorptive action (bisphosphonates, calcitonin, estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators) and bone-forming agents (fluoride, parathyroid hormone, teriparatide). Some newer drugs, as strontium ranelate, are also available for the use in the treatment of this disease.
Keywords: Bone,therapy, prevent ion, control, osteoporosis.