OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) with different classification criteria and lipid profile in elderly remnants from Quilombo (IRQ).
METHODS: We evaluated 110 elderly, IRQ 54, the criteria for MS was to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATPIII). They were compared to 56 elderly no remnants of a Quilombo (INR) submitted to an interview, and underwent clinical, anthropometric and biochemical evaluation.
RESULTS: The prevalence of MS among IRQ was 18.5% and 38.9%, and INRQ was 34% and 64.3% by NCEP/ATPIII and IDF. NCEP/ATPIII, the most prevalent criterion of MS was low HDL-c. Lipid profile of the groups was no difference in total cholesterol (p < 0.037), VLDL (p < 0.001) and triglycerides (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: The IRQ had a lower prevalence of MS in both settings and lower levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and VLDL-C.
Keywords: Metabolic syndrome X, risk factors, aged, ethnic groups.
OBJECTIVE: Frailty is characterized by increased vulnerability to stressors that results from decreased physiological reserves due to increased disability in multiple systems. This process, coupled with the decrease in the individual's ability to meet the demand imposed, culminating in the appearance of fragility. To identify, among the five items on the phenotype of frailty, which were more frequent in the investigation of Rede Fibra in Belo Horizonte- MG.
METHODS: This study is a subproject of Rede Fibra and used a random sample of 199 elderly from the database center of Belo Horizonte. This study was performed descriptive statistics for all study variables. For this, we used the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), version 15.0.
RESULTS: The prevalence of frailty in our sample was 14%, and the most frequent item of the sample was running at low speed in both, the frail elderly (93.6%) as in the pre-frail (88.4%).
CONCLUSION: The low-speed running was most common among frail and pre-frail elderly. So, this should be an item that deserves careful observation by health professionals for better conditions to identify possible frailty in the elderly.
Keywords: Aging, sarcopenic, gait, frail elderly.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between frailty and self-rated health in community-dwelling elderly.
METHODS: 79 male and female subjects, aged 65 years or older, living in Belo Horizonte-MG, volunteered for the study. It was administered "rede Fibra" questionnaire from December 2008 to may 2009, by interviewers previously trained. Self-rated health was measured through five questions: self-rated general health, health care, health compared to people with same age, actual health compared to last year and activity level compared to last year. Frailty criteria was the five items of frailty phenotype. Statistic analyses was performed using Kruskal Wallis and chi-squared, with α = 0.05.
RESULTS: Sample was composed of 78% female and 28% male with mean age 75.15 ± 6.77 years. Prevalence of frailty was 22% frail, 48% pre-frail and 30% not frail. There was significant statistic association between questions about health compared to people with same age and actual health compared to last year and frailty profile. Only the last question was significant to identify frail elderly with answer "worst health".
CONCLUSIONS: Results suggested significant association (p < 0,03) between self-rated health and frailty when evaluated by the question: "Compared to last year, how do you consider your health now?" And the proportion of answers "worst" was higher in the frail elderly group.
Keywords: Diagnostic self evaluation, frail elderly, vulnerability.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the static and dynamic balance after a training session on the vibration platform in elderly women with different loads.
METHODs: Participated in this study fifteen subjects (67.0 ± 4.7 years, 69.1 ± 10.5 kg, 155.4 ± 4.5 cm) underwent eight sessions in which the vibrating platform on separate days, in different frequencies and amplitudes (2 mm/30 Hz; 2mm/50 Hz, 4 mm/30 Hz, 4 mm/50 Hz), were evaluated after the first four sessions, the static balance test by one foot and in four subsequent sessions by the dynamic balance test "timed up and go", checked in the pre, post, twenty minutes and forty minutes later.
RESULTS: The data were tested using the analysis of variance ANOVA for repeated measures following by Scheffé post hoc when p < 0,05. No statistically significant difference was found between the times for any of the protocols for the dynamic and static equilibrium.
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that acute exercise on vibratory platform does not affect the post-balance in older women.
Keywords: Postural balance, aged, exercise.
OBJECTIVE: The high number of elderly fallers raises, among other issues, the importance of proper use of assistive devices (DAM): crutches, canes and walkers. Despite DAM aim the improvement in functional independence, balance and the reduction of disability, most patients are not instructed on their proper use and they often use inadequate/damaged models or unsuitable height. Few studies have confirmed the efficacy of isolated prescription of DAM to reduce the risk of falls and few studies have shown the proper way to indicate and adjust them individually. Thus, in order to describe, inform and guide about the proper use of DAM, a literature review was conducted using the databases Medline, Lilacs, Scielo and PubMed, literary references and book chapters wich approached the topic. A total of nine articles and three book chapters were identified. The results showed, for each type of DAM, its indication, use, variations and its characteristics, guidance about walk and transfers and height adjustments. In addition, other relevant issues have been described such as patients' features and limitations, their environment, their social and economic conditions and mostly their functional capacity. The prescription, guidance and proper follow up of DAM by a physical therapist provide better confidence, skill and adherence regarding their use. Possibly, such gain will interfere on patient's daily activities performance and it will act on falls prevention.
Keywords: osteoarthritis, knee, aged, obesity, quality of life, hydrotherapy
OBJECTIVE: To present the ongoing researches for biomarkers in Alzheimer disease
METHODS: Bibliographic review, starting from 2000, utilizing PubMed data bank.
RESULTS: This revision presents the actual evidences of the main markers involved in Alzheimer disease including the molecular (presented in blood and cerebrospinal fluid), the associated with image (pósitron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography and magnetic ressonance) and neural networks.
CONCLUSIONS: Finding an efficient biomarker will enable significative progress in the clinic evaluation and in the disease development approaches, also, will contribute to the increment of new therapeutic estrategies.
Keywords: Pharmacological biomarkers, Alzheimer disease, diagnosis.
Objective: Identify and characterize population-based studies using the SF-12 as a means of evaluating the elderly's quality of life related to health (HRQoL). Integrative literature review about population-based studies that used the SF-12 as a means of evaluating the HRQoL of individuals aged sixty years or older in the last five years.
We selected eighteen articles that used the SF-12 to assess prediction of hospitalization and mortality in elderly community, program evaluation and health services, assessments and treatments for health conditions and evaluation of psychometric measures. The population-based studies were composed of community elders. The SF-12 instrument was considered a short, understandable, quick and with good psychometric measures. We recommend their application as an interview to ensure the assessment of HRQOL in the elderly.
Keywords: Aged, quality of life, geriatrics
OBJECTIVE: Frailty is a high vulnerability state and adverse health effects common to the elderly, but it is also strongly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The causes of this association may be inflammation, vitamin D deficiency and anemia. However, as the patient with CKD presents these events independent of age, worrying about the fragility in CKD patients should be a standard practice for patient care.
Keywords: renal insufficiency, chronic kidney disease, risk factors, vulnerability.