OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of frailty and associated factors in elderly caregivers of dependent elderly individuals.
METHODS: Fifty caregivers were evaluated using a structured questionnaire containing sociodemographic and clinical-functional data, care demands, the profile of the dependent elderly individual and criteria regarding frailty (unintentional weight loss, self-reported exhaustion, walking speed, grip strength and physical activity). For the statistical analysis caregivers were divided in two groups "frail and pre frail" and "nonfrail", then was performed Chi square and Fisher exact tests and the Student t test for independent samples and multivariate logistic regression, stepwise logit model, with significance determined at 5%.
RESULTS: Caregivers mean age was 71,6 ± 7,5 and 78% of them were women. Analysis of the results showed a prevalence of caregivers considered frail of 18%, prefrail of 54% and 28% nonfrail. In the multivariate logistic regression, the factors associated with any frailty condition were: presence of depressive symptoms (OR = 1,11; 95% IC = 1,01-1,21), high caregiver burden (OR = 5,62; 95% IC = 1,69-18,66) and reduced functional capacity (OR = 1,29; 95% IC = 1,07-1,57).
CONCLUSION: These findings suggested that most caregivers had at high risk for developing the frailty.
Keywords: Frail elderly, caregivers, elderly.
INTRODUCTION: With advancing age, elderly patients present peculiar situations that influence their nutritional status, becoming the prevalent nutritional disorders.
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the nutrient intake of elderly and its association with nutritional status, as well as their anthropometric development.
METHOD: A cohort study, and at baseline (January 2008) collected data on socioeconomic, anthropometric, food intake and performed Mini Nutritional Assessment (MAN). In July (2008), were reassessed anthropometry and MAN. Statistical analysis included description of the data, chi-square test and Fisher exact test, ANOVA, multinomial logistic regression and marginal homogeneity.
RESULTS: Participants (n = 52), 82.7% were women, mean age 76.6 ± 9.0 years. Consumption of potassium, lipids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fell short by 100% and consumption of vitamin B12, niacin and zinc by 44.2%, 65.4% and 82.7% respectively. There was an increase in the percentage of malnourished (7.7% to 15.7%) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (10.8% to 25.7%).
CONCLUSION: Observed improvement and worsening nutritional status, combined with inadequate intake of nutrients, which highlights the need for interventions that promote healthier food consumption.
Keywords: Elderly, elderly nutrition, food consumption, homes for the aged, malnutrition, obesity.
OBJECTIVE: To identify the characteristics of orofacial myofunctional in institutionalized elderly.
METHODS: The sample comprised 7 females and 6 males aged between 60 and 74 years housed in the Casa de Longa Permanência Ieda Lucena, Recife, Pernambuco, in the period September-November 2009. We applied the Assessment Protocol Myofunctional; was also assessed the orofacial structures, through observation, palpation and movements of the articulators; observing the process of chewing and swallowing and overall assessment of speech.
RESULTS: We found structural alterations as posture, tone and mobility of the articulators and the performance of stomatognathic functions in oral communication and feeding the elderly. There was a significant number of elderly edentulous (8 people), a condition that affects chewing, food, communication and social interaction with a negative impact on quality of life of the elderly.
CONCLUSION: The changes in the stomatognathic system are common in the elderly, and can bring consequences that affect the improvement of living conditions of these individuals, especially in the institutionalized elderly, who have weakened, by sectors of psychological (loneliness caused by social isolation, lack of family life) and economic precariousness. Given this reality, it is concluded that audiologic performance configures itself as an essential tool in the diagnosis and care for these clients.
Keywords: Elderly, oral sensorimotor, speech therapy.
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to trace the elderly nutritional profile in both genders for those subjects living in Juvino Barreto Institute, institution for long-term care.
METHODS: It was used the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MAN) and anthropometric datas such as weight and height, to obtain the body mass index (BMI) and evaluation analysis of the nutritional composition of nutrients in the meals offered to the elderly in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes - DRIs (2002) for energy, macro and micronutrients.
RESULTS: The results showed a high incidence of malnutrition and risk of malnutrition among the elderly, 32% by MAM and 53% by Lipschitz. It is known that the need of energy decreases and the need of protein, vitamins and minerals remain the same or even increase as the human body gets old. In this way, this study revealed a worrying fact concerning the mismatches presented in both: in macro and in micronutrients, shown by analysis of the menus offered by the institution for the elderly.
CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for nutritional care of aged people, in order to meet the nutritional, physiological and functional demands that the old age requires.
Keywords: Nutritional status assessment, necessity of nutrition, feeding plan.
Pressure ulcers represent a high significance problem in the medical practice. The patients who develop this kind of lesions have a worst clinical evolution, demanding a higher period of hospitalization and higher expenses. This research purposes to present and discuss based on scientific evidences all the means to prevent pressure ulcers. The recommendations included in this article were extracted from a literature review that included technical books and scientific articles from the following databases: 1. PubMed, 2. SciELO and 3. UpToDate Inc. The researches priorized articles published in the last five years and critically evaluated them, with the objective of certificate the methods and the results presented were valid. The researchers also included another articles with historical expressiveness, which were published more than five years ago. Its data were evaluated to reassure its legitimacy.
Keywords: Pressure ulcers, literature review, risk factors, therapeutics, prevention, control.
OBJECTIVE: Review of the literature to evidence homeopathic medicines effects on immunosenescence mechanisms.
METHODS: The review was based on Medline (PubMed), Lilacs e Cochrane in articles in vitro, of last ten years. The research utilized scientific journal from English, French and Spanish languages.
RESULTS: Were found five articles, all of then demonstrated some evidence of immunomodulator effect, showed an enhanced in immune response and an important role in inflammatory processes of homeopathic medicines.
CONCLUSION: Bases on the positive results of in vitro search clinical search with specific population of elderly to asses the effect of homeopathic medicines in the aging process and in the diseases with imbalance in immune response are recommend.
Keywords: Homeopathy, aging, interleukins, lymphocytes, macrophages.