This article is part of a special series designed to help authors in the process of scientific writing and communication. The objective of the study was to provide tools and strategies to prepare and achieve effective forms of oral communication, especially related to posters and oral presentations. A non-systematic literature research (PubMed/Web of Science) was performed to retrieve relevant data about how to prepare posters, oral presentation and how to control anxiety caused by oral speeches. In addition, a brief overview of innovative and recent digital tools is also provided. The scientific literature proves some interesting recommendations for preparing a good poster or a slide show and to avoid public speech anxiety as well. A list of available digital tools for such preparation was also disclosed. The rules for oral or poster communication differ from those related to manuscript writing. The quality of oral scientific communication can be improved by following such rules.
Keywords: posters; health communication; anxiety; scientific communication and diffusion.
OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the fine motor skills (M1) degree in a group of independent elders, checking its possible association with the weekly practice of physical activities.
METHODS: 139 independent elders of both genders, aged 60 and older, who responded to a survey about their weekly practice of physical activities and then, later on were subjected to M1 tests according to EMTI, which final scores determine each individual’s M1. The elderly were categorized into two groups: 60‑70 years‑old and above 70 years‑old.
RESULTS: the female gender was predominant in the sample. Most of the elders (46.56%) showed a M1 Mean Normal, followed by Inferior levels (29.50%) and Superior levels (23.74%). About 6.5% of the elders do not practice any physical activity, 5% practice it once a week, 53% twice a week and 35.5% more than two times per week. It could be observed that those practicing physical activity at least three times a week have better score on the M1 test (Mann‑Whitney Test; p = 0.039). On the other hand, the group older than 70 years had a worse performance (Mann‑Whitney Test, p = 0.001).
CONCLUSION: The M1 Normal Medium was the score achieved with the highest percentage in the two age groups analyzed, being the group older than 70 years the one that presented worse performance. In addition, sedentary elderly or those who report having physical activity only once a week also had the worst test results.
Keywords: aged; motor skills; motor activity; health of the elderly; health of institutionalized elderly.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate self-rated health and to identify its relationship with functional capacity, objective measures of muscle strength, and mobility in a sample of community-dwelling elderly adults.
METHOD: A cross-sectional, population-based study using data from the “Fragility Study on Brazilian Elderly” (Fibra) electronic database, carried out between 2008 and 2009, in which 2,558 community-dwelling elderly were recruited. The dependent variable was self-rated health compared with peers of the same age, among the elderly. The odd ratios were adjusted for sociodemographic and health variables and were estimated through multinomial logistic regression. The analyses were carried out using the program Stata 14.0.
RESULTS: The average age of the elderly participants was 72.3 years old (SD ± 5.5) and 65.6% of them were women. When comparing with someone of the same age, 70.2% of the participants rated their health as better than the other’s; 23.4% of them rated it as equal, and 6.4% of the elderly rated it as worse. The adjusted regression model showed that the odd ratios were more important when rating health as worse among the elderly participants who were dependent on instrumental activities (OR = 2.19; 95%CI 1.22–3.92) and had weaker grip strength (OR = 0.96; 95%CI 0.93–0.99). Better health rating showed a statistically significant difference related to speed gait (OR = 0.88; 95%CI 0.81–0.94).
CONCLUSION: We found associations between the self-rated health and instrumental activities of daily living, gait velocity, and grip strength. These results reinforce functionality as an important health predictor and broaden self-rated health approachs including social comparison criteria.
Keywords: health of the elderly; self-assessment; activities of daily living; elderly; prevalence.
INTRODUCTION: Neurodegenerative diseases, a major public health problem, could have a vascular origin. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) enables reliable, non-invasive, and rapid measurements of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood flows, and evaluation of the mechanical coupling between cerebral blood and CSF flows throughout the cardiac cycle (CC).
OBJECTIVES: Our purpose was to evaluate the potential of PC-MRI to the study of cerebral blood and CSF flows in patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Mild cognitive impairment with amnesic disorders (MCIa) and Vascular Dementia (VD).
METHODS: The elderly population consisted of 20 AD (age: 80 ± 5 years); 12 AD patients with vascular cerebral lesions (ADvasc) (age: 81 ± 5 years), 10 MCIa patients (age: 80 ± 7 years), and 8 VD patients (age: 78 ± 7 years) were identified. They underwent the same PC-MRI protocol and were compared to 13 age-matched Healthy Elderly (HE) (age: 71± 9 years). Arterial blood pressure was analyzed to detect patients with hypertension.
RESULTS: Significantly higher cerebral blood and CSF flows were observed in HE when compared to VD, AD and ADvasc, (p<0.05), but not MCIa patients who yielded the highest cerebral arterial and venous blood flows and stroke volumes compared to the other patients, (p<0.05). The highest oscillations of CSF were also detected in MCIa patients (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: Our preliminary data suggests an increase in cerebral arterial blood and CSF flows in MCIa. PC-MRI provides a new hydrodynamic view, which may help evaluate a potential role of cardiovascular alterations in neurodegenerative diseases.
Keywords: Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods; neurodegenerative diseases; Elderly.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the translation and transcultural adaptation of Hurria’s chemotherapy toxicity score, a prediction tool to estimate chemotherapy toxicity in the elderly.
METHODS: The original English version of the score was translated to Portuguese using the forward and backward translation technique, as described by Guilemin.
RESULTS: The translation was performed by two Brazilians (a physician and a professional translator), both fluent in English. Two professionals from a specialized linguistic service, not related to the study, then carried out the backward translation. Finally, a medical committee composed of oncologists, geriatricians, and hematologists discussed the consistency of the score, choosing a final version of the instrument in Portuguese. This version was piloted-tested in medical charts in an Oncogeriatric service, with high reliability as tested by Kappa statistic test.
CONCLUSION: The final version of Hurria’s chemotherapy toxicity score in Portuguese proved to be an easy, clear, and quick tool, suitable for use in clinical practice.
Keywords: oncology; geriatrics, chemotherapy; toxicity.
INTRODUCTION: Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome linked to increased mortality, morbidity and the risk of falls Detection of pre-frail and early frail individuals is essential to minimize adverse health outcomes, enabling effective interdisciplinary interventions.
OBJECTIVE: To identify frailty syndrome with Timed Up and Go (TUG) test in home-dwelling elderly.
METHODS: A home-based cross-sectional study was carried out with 322 elderly people living in a Southern city of Brazil. The Fried frailty criteria was used in order to assess the levels of frailty; the TUG score was investigated as a possible predictor of frailty. The diagnostic ability of different cut-off points for the TUG test was evaluated using the ROC curve.
RESULTS: ROC curve analysis for the TUG test, a value of eight seconds was identified as the good cut-off point for the screening of the frailty syndrome. The AUROC was 0.775, with a sensitivity of 85.0%, specificity of 59.5% and negative predictive value of 78.6%.
CONCLUSIONS: Considering the limitations of a single test to accomplish the overall complexity of frailty syndrome, in the present study, TUG test was a good screening tool in home-dwelling elderly.
Keywords: cross-sectional studies; frail elderly; primary health care; aging; psychometrics.
The significant aging of the world population increases the demand for professionals with adequate training to care for the elderly. There is shortage and unsatisfactory distribution of health professionals worldwide, and so occurs in relation to professionals trained to care for the elderly. The deficiency of Medical Education in Geriatrics is a global phenomenon, since only about 40% of the countries refer some content of Geriatrics in undergraduate Medical courses. Even though Brazil has advanced legislation in terms of elderly policy, less than half of the medical courses offer Geriatrics disciplines/modules or content related to aging, besides the lack of training activities for teachers, specialists and researchers in the field. This situation is worsened by the fact that in this population group there is prevalence of chronic-degenerative diseases, specificities in the manifestation of diseases and, consequently, their handling, emphasizing the need for a biopsychosocial model with the performance of a multidisciplinary team trained for this purpose. Despite the efforts of several institutions and societies around the world involved in establishing a minimum Geriatrics curriculum in Medicine courses and qualifying professionals to work in the area, the problem is aggravated by the speed of population aging. The challenges are many and there is a lot of work to be done. The creation of feasible and sustainable models of care for the elderly should be the goal of governments and of all of those who work in the field, not only in Brazil, but all over the world.
Keywords: aging; Medical Education; Geriatrics.
BACKGROUND: Melanoma is often misdiagnosed in older people. Some clinical and histopathological features seem to differ according to age.
OBJECTIVES: This case series aimed to identify clinicopathological differences of melanoma between older and younger patients.
METHODS: We identified all incident melanomas diagnosed in a dermatology outpatients unit from January/2007 to December/2014. Data were collected from medical records and pathology registries.
RESULTS: We included 62 patients (mean age of 62.1 ± 4.2 years), with a median Breslow thickness of 4 mm (1.2 − 6.5). While men were majority in the older group, women prevailed between younger counterparts (p = 0.02). Multivariate analysis identified history of chronic sun exposure, multiple naevi, skin phototypes 1 and 2, in situ melanoma and the presence of another skin tumour to be correlated with age. In a logistic regression model, the presence of chronic sun exposure and nodular subtype were found to influence age. Major limitations include those inherent to cross ‑sectional design, including selection and information biases, the lack of confounding factors analysis (including survival and prognosis), and the sample size.
CONCLUSIONS: On this case series, melanoma seems to be more frequent in older men and in elders with chronic sun exposure; age was found to be significantly related to nodular subtype and chronic sun exposure.
Keywords: melanoma; aged; epidemiology.
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of long QT syndrome (LQTS) in the electrocardiographic tracing of elderly people and the concomitant use of drugs that can aggravate this condition.
METHODS: This is a crosssectional, observational study of elderly patients in outpatient services at Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória, over a six-month period.
RESULTS: A total of 163 patients with 75 ± 8 (60–94) years of age, 60.7% (n = 99) of whom were female, participated in the study. Of the total number of patients, 33.1% (n = 54) were regularly taking at least one pharmaceutical that increased the risk of QTc prolongation; 34 patients (20.9%) had prolonged QTc and 15 (9,2%) had at-risk QTc. Of these patients with at-risk QTc, 4 (23.4%) were using at least 1 1 pharmaceutical that increases the risk of QT prolongation (p = 0.07).
CONCLUSION: In this sample, a high frequency of LQTS was observed, as well as the use of pharmaceuticals that potentially cause LQTS and arrhythmias.
Keywords: Long QT syndrome; Pharmaceutical preparations; Elderly people.